529 Tax Advantages
At a glance
529 plans offer generous tax advantages to encourage families to save for college. Tax-free savings, state deductions and credits, and annual gift tax exemptions are just a few perks.
Tax-free gains. Tax-free savings.
Contributions to your 529 account are considered after-tax much like Roth IRAs. While there is no federal tax deduction for contributions, your money grows tax-deferred, meaning you pay no annual taxes on the earnings. Most importantly, any gains earned in your account are tax-free upon withdrawal if they’re used for qualified education expenses.
Although there is no federal tax deduction, many states offer income tax deductions or credits for contributions to 529 plans, especially their own state-sponsored plan. Residents of Arizona, Arkansas, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana and Pennsylvania may be eligible to claim a state income tax deduction or credit regardless of which plan they contribute to.
Jump to: 529 Plans and Taxes with a CFP®
More about qualified education expenses:
Qualified education expenses for college include major items like tuition, fees and room and board. It also includes smaller expenses like the cost of computers, software and special needs equipment. 529 savings (investment) plans are designed to save for all expenses. 529 prepaid plans, like Private College 529, are designed to prepay and save for tuition and mandatory fees at participating schools. Although prepaid plans are not designed to save for all qualified education expenses, you can take a withdrawal from your account to cover items other than tuition and fees. Visit the plan details page to see our withdrawal policy.
When you contribute to your 529 account, the money is considered a completed gift by the IRS and therefore exempt from federal estate tax. Even though the money is no longer part of your taxable estate, you still retain control of your 529 assets as the account owner. This makes opening a 529 account a great addition to estate planning.
Generous gift tax limits
Since 529 contributions are completed gifts, they also qualify for the annual gift tax exclusion. For the 2023 tax year, individuals can gift up to $17,000 ($34,000 for married couples) per beneficiary without the money counting towards the lifetime gift tax exemption.
For instance, a married couple with two children can contribute up to $68,000 ($34,000 x 2) without reporting their 529 contributions to the IRS. It’s important to note that the annual exclusion amount includes all gifts to an individual in a year, not just contributions to a 529 account.
If you exceed the annual limit, either as an individual or married couple, you must report the excess amount to the IRS, which will count towards your lifetime exemption. If the same couple contributes $72,000 in one year, they will have to file a gift tax return for $4,000 and that amount will be deducted from their lifetime exemption.
But don’t worry too much. The lifetime exemption amount for gift and estate taxes combined is currently $12.92 million ($25.84 million for married couples). Just be aware that the amount is set to drop to $6 million in 2025 and could fluctuate in the years to come.
Superfunding a 529
There is one special provision of the tax code that allows you to exceed the annual gift limit without a penalty. “Superfunding” is when you contribute up to 5 years the annual gift tax exclusion amount in a single year. In 2023, you can give up to $85,000 as an individual or $170,000 as a married couple filing jointly. This amount would be excluded from your lifetime gift tax exemption.
When you superfund a 529 account, you must wait 5 years to give to the same beneficiary again. This includes all financial gifts. Otherwise, whatever you give within the 5-year window will count against your lifetime gift tax exemption.
Freedom to open an account
529 accounts are not limited to parents. Since anyone can open and contribute to an account, extended family and friends can also benefit from the 529 tax advantages outlined here.
If you’re interested in opening a 529 account in conjunction with estate or legacy planning, you should speak with a financial advisor. Grandparents especially should know the additional advantages of opening an account.
529 Plans and Taxes with a CFP®
Learn more about 529 plans and taxes from Ann Garcia, a Certified Financial Planner and the author of How to Pay for College. During our discussion, Ann shares her personal journey saving and financing college, reviews 529 tax advantages, and stresses the importance of getting the most from your savings.
“529 plans have at least two tax benefits, often three,” says Ann. “The two you always get with a 529 are tax-free growth and tax-free distributions for qualified higher education expenses. In the case of 529s, that means tuition and fees, room and board, books, and any required supplies.”
“The third tax benefit is many states offer tax incentives to their residents for contributions to their state 529 college savings plan,” says Ann.
States set their own rules on whether they offer this third benefit — and for how much — so it’s best to research ahead of time.
You may also like: Why do I need a 529 plan?
“We pass up a lot of opportunities to save on taxes,” says Ann. “As a financial advisor, I can tell you that happens quite a bit, and 529s are a really great example of that.”
Ann hears from many families who avoid 529s because of higher expense ratios (when compared to taxable accounts) or because they’re not flexible enough. However, she likes to use real numbers when revisiting the tax advantages of 529s.
“Let’s say, for example, you contributed $1,000 to a 529 when your child was born, and every year you contributed another $1,000 to that account and then your account grew at an average rate of 5% per year. Once they get to college age, you’d have about $40,000 in that account, and about half of it would be contributions and half would be growth. When you withdraw that money from a taxable account, the growth portion — that $20,000 — is taxable to you. Even if it’s long-term capital gains, it’s still taxed at 15% federal and then whatever your state tax rate is.”
Using 529 funds
“As long as your distributions are for qualified higher education expenses, they’re tax-free,” says Ann. “It also doesn’t matter when, over the course of the year, you take those distributions, so you do not have to match your distribution to a payment.”
What happens if you take non-qualified distributions?
“If that’s the case, you pay taxes and a 10% penalty on the growth portion of the distribution,” says Ann. “That 10% penalty is waived if your excess is due to scholarships. So, let’s say you saved aggressively and then your kid got a great financial aid package and you have to take more money. You don’t pay the 10% penalty as long as you’re within the realm of what was covered by scholarships.”
Education tax credits
“[Education] tax credits can make a huge difference for families, and of the two credits, the AOTC [American Opportunity Tax Credit] and the Lifetime Learning Credit, the AOTC is by far the most beneficial for undergraduate,” says Ann.
The AOTC is worth up to $2,500 a year per student for four years of undergraduate education (maximum of $10,000 per student). Beyond that, there are several criteria for students and their families to claim the credit:
- Enrollment. Must be enrolled at least half the time.
- Income. Must be below the phase out range: adjusted gross income (AGI) of $160,000-$180,000 for married couples; $80,000-$90,000 for single parents.
- Eligible expense. Only for tuition, fees, books, and required supplies; excludes room and board.
- No double dipping. As it relates to 529 plans, you can’t use your 529 for any expense for which you claim the AOTC.
- Timing matters. Because this is a tax credit, you must spend the money in the calendar year in which you’re claiming the AOTC.
- Not automatic. To claim the credit, you need to file form 8863 when completing your taxes.
One further and critical point is how the AOTC credit is applied.
“The way it works is it’s a 100% credit of the first $2,000 of qualified expenses that you incur and then 25% of the next $2,000 of expenses. To get the full credit, you need to spend $4,000. But you get the most bang from your buck from the first $2,000. Again that money has to come from someplace other than your 529,” says Ann.
The second tax credit, the Lifetime Learning Credit, works like the AOTC but is less beneficial.
“It’s only 20% of the first $10,000 of qualified expenses. So basically, you have to spend $10,000 to get a $2,000 credit,” says Ann. “It also has a lower income cutoff. It’s $118,000 to $138,000 of AGI for married filing jointly and $59,000 to $69,000 for a single filer.”
On the plus side, there are three benefits the Lifetime Learning Credit offers that the AOTC does not.
First, you can claim the Lifetime Learning Credit for more than four years. Second, you or your student can claim the credit for graduate school. Third, you are not required to be enrolled at least half the time to claim the credit, making it a great option for part-time students.